Donna E. Williams is an author and freelance editor. Following a 30-year career in trade book and magazine publishing, she returned to the University of Toronto and completed an M.A. in history. Hardscrabble is based on her masterâ€™s thesis. She lives in Toronto.
How emigrants were lured to Ontarioâ€™s Muskoka in the 1870s in a vain attempt to farm the Canadian Shield.
When the Free Grants and Homestead Act was first introduced in 1868, fierce debates erupted in Ontarioâ€™s Legislature over whether land in the Muskoka region should be opened to settlement or reserved for the Aboriginal population. From the beginning, many people vented serious doubts about the free grant scheme, citing the districtâ€™s poor agricultural prospects. In the end, such caution was ignored by overeager boosters.
The story in Hardscrabble also takes readers to Britain, where emigration philanthropists urged their government to send the countryâ€™s poor to Canada, then follows these emigrants as they left the familiar behind to make a new life in the Canadian wilderness. The initial romance of living off the land was soon dispelled as these hapless souls faced clearing the land, building shelters, and sowing crops in desolate, remote locations.
Donna Williamsâ€™s extensive research leads her to conclude that Muskokaâ€™s experience epitomizes the wrongheadedness of placing already poor people on remote land unsuited for farming.
J. Patrick Boyer studied law at the International Court of Justice in The Netherlands, served as Canadaâ€™s Parliamentary Secretary for External Affairs, and works for democratic development overseas. The author of twenty-three books on Canadian history, law, politics, and governance, Patrick lives with wife, Elise, in Muskoka and Toronto.